Commit 20b8d9844526f75ed9c5d88f750de77b6803e9ae

Authored by Rodrigo Siqueira de Melo
1 parent 7819fdce

Introdução e Related work revisada e atualizada

oss2018/content/01-introduction.tex
... ... @@ -3,32 +3,38 @@
3 3 E-government projects differ from others due to their complexity and extension
4 4 \cite{anthopoulos2016egovernment}. They are complex because they combine
5 5 construction, innovation, information \& communications technologies, politics,
6   -and social impact. Their extension, on the other hand, is related to their scope,
7   -target audience, organizational size, time, and the corresponding resistance to
8   -change. Government-academia collaborative projects can be considered an
9   -alternative to create novelty for e-government projects and to meet the needs of
10   -society. This collaborative work has challenges, such as organizing the
11   -collaboration project, aligning goals, synchronizing the pace of between
  6 +and social impact. Their extension, on the other hand, is related to their
  7 +scope, target audience, organizational size, time, and the corresponding
  8 +resistance to change. Government-academia collaborative projects may be treated
  9 +as an alternative to create novelty for e-government projects and to meet the
  10 +needs of society. This collaborative work has challenges, such as organizing
  11 +the collaboration project, aligning goals, synchronizing the pace of between
12 12 government and academia \cite{anthopoulos2016egovernment}, and overcoming the
13 13 failure trend of e-government projects \cite{goldfinch2007pessimism}.
14 14  
15   -Poor project management is one of the main reasons why e-government projects
16   -fail \cite{anthopoulos2016egovernment}. When government and academia combine
17   -efforts to develop an e-government solution, the differences in the project
18   -management become an issue. Academia commonly work on cutting edge of
19   -technology while government is still relying on traditional techniques.
20   -Changing the development process in large-size institutions represents
21   -an organizational disturbance which impacts on structure, culture, and
22   -management practices \cite{nerur2015challenges}. As a result, government and
23   -academia have to harmonize their view to increasing the chances of success in
24   -projects with tight deadlines and short budgets.
  15 +Poor project management is one of the causes of projects failures in the
  16 +government \cite{anthopoulos2016egovernment} which in turn grows into a
  17 +critical issue when government and academia combine efforts to develop an
  18 +e-government solution. Academia commonly works on cutting edge of technology
  19 +while the government is still relying on traditional techniques. Changing the
  20 +development process in large-size institutions represents an organizational
  21 +disturbance with impacts on structure, culture, and management practices
  22 +\cite{nerur2015challenges}. As a result, government and academia have to
  23 +harmonize their view to increasing the chances of success in projects with
  24 +tight deadlines and short budgets.
25 25  
26   -% TODO: Projetos de sl tem x características e muitas de suas práticas tem se mostrado válidas e que abrem precedentes para utilizar no contexto governo academia. Falar da influência do SL no projeto
  26 +An option for harmonizing different management approaches, it is bringing
  27 +procedures from Free Libre Open Source (FLOSS) ecosystems and agile. Open
  28 +communication, project modularity, the community of users, and fast response to
  29 +problems are just a few of the FLOSS ecosystem practices \cite{capiluppi,
  30 +warsta}. Individuals and interactions, Working software, Customer
  31 +collaboration, Responding to change \cite{beck} are the core of agile
  32 +development. The intersection between FLOSS and agile can harmonize different
  33 +process management and improves the cooperation of distinct teams.
27 34  
28   -In this work we investigate a set of practices from a 30-month
  35 +In this work, we investigate a set of practices from a 30-month
29 36 government-academia project that helped to harmonize the differences between
30 37 government and academia management cultures. We trace the best practices based
31   -on open source ecosystems and agile methodologies. Finally, we validate their
32   -benefits by collecting data from the main project repository and by surveying
33   -the project participant points of view.
34   -
  38 +on FLOSS ecosystems and agile methodology. Finally, we validate the set of
  39 +methods extracted from the project by collecting data from the project
  40 + repository and by surveying the project participant points of view.
... ...
oss2018/content/02-relatedwork.tex
1 1 \section{Related work}
2 2 \label{sec:relatedwork}
3 3  
4   -% TODO:
5   -%O related work está bem montado. Contudo, eu senti falta de falar sobre
6   -%software livre. A adoção dele ou de suas práticas. Se não existe ainda esse
7   -%estudo, então essa seria uma bela colaboração da nossa parte e deveria ser
8   -%evidênciada no último parágrafo. IMO isso é importante uma vez que é a nossa
9   -%chance de por a parte de FLOSS que sempre defendemos, em adição a conferência é
10   -%sobre FLOSS e talvez possam dizer que a gente não se 'enquadra' na conferência.
11   -%Não acho que precisamos tirar a parte 'agile', mas precisamos ser mais conciso
12   -%sobre isso
13   -
14   -%Sugestão do Fabio: Colocar referências de trabalho que conseguiram conciliar
15   -%ou que reportam dificuldade em conciliar ou aplicar processos de gerenciamento
16   -%em um projeto de colaboração
17   -
  4 +% TODO: Verificar se não vale a pena citar os fatores que o Strode descobriu.
  5 +% Eu acho que deixaria a frase mais completa
18 6 Discussions on how to introduce new management methods into an organization are
19   -present in several papers. Nerur et al. identify the critical issues that involve
20   -migrating from traditional to agile by comparing main practices of the two
  7 +present in several papers. Nerur et al. recognized critical issues concerning
  8 +the migration from traditional to agile by comparing practices of both
21 9 methodologies \cite{nerur2015challenges}. The authors point out managerial,
22 10 organizational, people, process, and technological issues to be rethought and
23 11 reconfigured in an organization for a successful migration. Strode et al.
24   -investigate the correlation between adoption of agile methodologies and
25   -organizational culture \cite{impactOfOrganizationalCulture}. They evaluate the
26   -perception of organizational culture and the use of agile practices in nine
27   -software development projects, identifying organizational culture factors that
28   -are correlated to the implementation of agile methods.
  12 +investigated the relationship between the adoption of agile methodologies and
  13 +organizational culture \cite{impactOfOrganizationalCulture} by evaluating nine
  14 +projects. They identified a set of factors directly linked to the agile
  15 +methods.
29 16  
30 17 Some works also discuss how academia can collaborate with the industry in the
31   -management of software projects. Chookittikul et al. evaluates the increasing
32   -use of the agile methods by software development organizations in Thailand and
33   -suggests universities create curricula which develop in their undergraduate
34   -students' practical skills required by industry (mainly agile practices) to
35   -encourage the software industry growth in the region \cite{cho2011gap}.
36   -Sandberg et al. report the use of Scrum in a collaborative research
37   -consortium between industry and academia (involving ten industry partners and
38   -five universities in Sweden) \cite{sandberg2017iacollaboration}.
39   -
40   -New variables arise when a different approach to project management is
41   -introduced to complex and large-scale organizations, such as the public
42   -administration. Alleman et al. describe a production deployment for the US
43   -government, focus on describing the methodology applied to address long-term
44   -planning and value estimation \cite{alleman2003making}. Agile methods
45   -application in the Brazilian public sector are approached by Melo et al. \cite{melo2013agileBr} and De
46   -Sousa et al. \cite{de2016using}, both are experiences limited
47   -to pilot projects. Not production-ready one that will provide more accurate
48   -data with the real world.
49   -
50   -This paper differentiates itself from others by describing a production level
51   -software development collaboration between government and academia,
52   -analyzing differences in the development process and administrative issues of
53   -the two organizations, and evidencing empirical practices that harmonized the
54   -interactions and satisfied the development and management process of both
55   -sides.
56   -
57   -% TODO: if needed, we can add this paper as related work
58   -%% Staying Agile in Government Software Projects - reports how the agile culture and practices (XP and Scrum) were introduced in a development team working on a government project. Describes practices added, adapted and abandoned. They had a experienced small team that did not know agile. TODO: Not sure if any process had to be added/adapted/abandoned at the government side.
59   -
60   -%Talvez seria relevante citar Extending Patterns for Fearless Change: sobre como introduzir novas ideias em uma organização tradicional (em particular, como introduzir métodos ágeis)
61   -%O Mestrado do Alexandre Freire sobre como ensinar métodos ágeis que tem toda um capítulo sobre governo: https://www.ime.usp.br/~ale/dissertacao_ale_para_web.pdf
  18 +management of software projects. Chookittikul et al. evaluated the increasing
  19 +use of the agile techniques in the software development companies in Thailand.
  20 +The authors suggested that universities should create curricula which develop
  21 +in their undergraduate student's practical skills required by industry (mainly
  22 +agile practices) to promote growth in the local software business \cite{cho2011gap}.
  23 +Sandberg et al. report the use of Scrum in a collaborative research consortium
  24 +between industry and academia (involving ten industry partners and five
  25 +universities in Sweden) \cite{sandberg2017iacollaboration}.
  26 +
  27 +% TODO: Eu tirei várias coisas, que ao meu ver não estavam agregando. Verificar
  28 +% se não mudei o significado de algo
  29 +Complex and large-scale organizations, such as the public administration, have
  30 +to deal with multiple project variables. Alleman et al. describe a production
  31 +deployment for the US government, focus on the methodology applied to address
  32 +long-term planning and value estimation \cite{alleman2003making}. Agile
  33 +methods application in the Brazilian public sector are approached by Melo et
  34 +al. \cite{melo2013agileBr} and De Sousa et al. \cite{de2016using}, both are
  35 +experiences limited to pilot projects.
  36 +
  37 +% TODO: Parágrafo novo, vale a pena dar uma olhada
  38 +Several works tried to highlight the FLOSS practices, while others attempted to
  39 +determine the relationship between the FLOSS practices and agile methods.
  40 +Capiluppi et al. examined about 400 projects to find FLOSS project properties
  41 +\cite{capiluppi}. In their work, they extracted generic characterization
  42 +(project size, age, license, and programming language), analyzed the average
  43 +number of people involved in the project, the community of user, and
  44 +documentation characteristics. Warsta et al. found differences and similarities
  45 +between agile development and FLOSS practices \cite{warsta}. The authors argued
  46 +that FLOSS development may differ from agile by philosophical and economic
  47 +perspective, on the other hand, both shares the definition of work. Finally,
  48 +Eric Raymond describes many of his experience and decisions in his work with
  49 +FLOSS communities \cite{raymond}, this report has many intersections with the
  50 +agile manifesto.
  51 +
  52 +% TODO: Mudei consideravelmente esse parágrafo
  53 +This paper distinguishes itself from others by studying a software created in
  54 +collaboration between government and academia. We extracted empirical practices
  55 +that helped to harmonize the interactions between two different development
  56 +process and satisfied the management process of both sides. We analyzed these
  57 +methods from the FLOSS an agile perspective.
... ...
oss2018/spb-oss-2018.bib
1   -@article{anthopoulos2016egovernment,
2   - title={Why e-government projects fail? An analysis of the Healthcare. gov website},
3   - author={Anthopoulos, Leonidas and Reddick, Christopher G and Giannakidou, Irene and Mavridis, Nikolaos},
4   - journal={Government Information Quarterly},
5   - volume={33},
6   - number={1},
7   - pages={161--173},
8   - year={2016},
9   - publisher={Elsevier}
10   -}
  1 + @article{anthopoulos2016egovernment,
  2 + title={Why e-government projects fail? An analysis of the Healthcare. gov website},
  3 + author={Anthopoulos, Leonidas and Reddick, Christopher G and Giannakidou, Irene and Mavridis, Nikolaos},
  4 + journal={Government Information Quarterly},
  5 + volume={33},
  6 + number={1},
  7 + pages={161--173},
  8 + year={2016},
  9 + publisher={Elsevier}
  10 + }
11 11  
12   -@inproceedings{sandberg2017iacollaboration,
13   - author = {Sandberg, Anna B\"{o}rjesson and Crnkovic, Ivica},
14   - title = {Meeting Industry: Academia Research Collaboration Challenges with Agile Methodologies},
15   - booktitle = {Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice Track},
16   - series = {ICSE-SEIP '17},
17   - year = {2017},
18   - isbn = {978-1-5386-2717-4},
19   - location = {Buenos Aires, Argentina},
20   - pages = {73--82},
21   - numpages = {10},
22   - url = {https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSE-SEIP.2017.20},
23   - doi = {10.1109/ICSE-SEIP.2017.20},
24   - acmid = {3103122},
25   - publisher = {IEEE Press},
26   - address = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
27   - keywords = {agile methodologies, case study, collaboration, industry-academia research}
28   -}
  12 + @inproceedings{sandberg2017iacollaboration,
  13 + author = {Sandberg, Anna B\"{o}rjesson and Crnkovic, Ivica},
  14 + title = {Meeting Industry: Academia Research Collaboration Challenges with Agile Methodologies},
  15 + booktitle = {Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice Track},
  16 + series = {ICSE-SEIP '17},
  17 + year = {2017},
  18 + isbn = {978-1-5386-2717-4},
  19 + location = {Buenos Aires, Argentina},
  20 + pages = {73--82},
  21 + numpages = {10},
  22 + url = {https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSE-SEIP.2017.20},
  23 + doi = {10.1109/ICSE-SEIP.2017.20},
  24 + acmid = {3103122},
  25 + publisher = {IEEE Press},
  26 + address = {Piscataway, NJ, USA},
  27 + keywords = {agile methodologies, case study, collaboration, industry-academia research}
  28 + }
29 29  
30 30  
31   -@article{goldfinch2007pessimism,
32   - ISSN={00333352, 15406210},
33   - URL={http://www.jstor.org/stable/4624644},
34   - author={Shaun Goldfinch},
35   - journal={Public Administration Review},
36   - number={5},
  31 + @article{goldfinch2007pessimism,
  32 + ISSN={00333352, 15406210},
  33 + URL={http://www.jstor.org/stable/4624644},
  34 + author={Shaun Goldfinch},
  35 + journal={Public Administration Review},
  36 + number={5},
37 37 pages={917-929},
38 38 publisher={[American Society for Public Administration, Wiley]},
39 39 title={Pessimism, Computer Failure, and Information Systems Development in the Public Sector},
... ... @@ -224,3 +224,38 @@
224 224 organization={IEEE}
225 225 }
226 226  
  227 +@inproceedings{capiluppi,
  228 + title={Characteristics of open source projects},
  229 + author={Capiluppi, Andrea and Lago, Patricia and Morisio, Maurizio},
  230 + booktitle={Software Maintenance and Reengineering, 2003. Proceedings. Seventh European Conference on},
  231 + pages={317--327},
  232 + year={2003},
  233 + organization={IEEE}
  234 +}
  235 +
  236 +@inproceedings{warsta,
  237 + title={Is open source software development essentially an agile method},
  238 + author={Warsta, Juhani and Abrahamsson, Pekka},
  239 + booktitle={Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Open Source Software Engineering},
  240 + pages={143--147},
  241 + year={2003}
  242 +}
  243 +
  244 +@article{beck,
  245 + title={Manifesto for Agile Software Development. Agile Alliance (2001)},
  246 + author={Beck, Kent and Beedle, M and Bennekum, A and others},
  247 + journal={Retrieved June},
  248 + volume={14},
  249 + year={2010}
  250 +}
  251 +
  252 +@article{raymond,
  253 + title={The cathedral and the bazaar},
  254 + author={Raymond, Eric},
  255 + journal={Philosophy \& Technology},
  256 + volume={12},
  257 + number={3},
  258 + pages={23},
  259 + year={1999},
  260 + publisher={Springer}
  261 +}
... ...